Chapter 24



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Pollack A.  F.D.A. Extends Avastin’s Use to Breast Cancer. New York Times, February 23, 2008.  Available at:  Accessed July 14, 2008.


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6. J. B. Blitzer, D. Mc Connell, C. Cullinane, S. Grant, T. Asciuto, I. Shbeeb, B. Sommers, C. Jacobs, S. Davis, K. Byczynski, R. Nagourney. Assay Directed Chemotherapy In Advanced Solid Tumors: A Phase II Trial.  J Clin Oncol. 2005 ASCO Annual Meeting Proceedings. Vol 23, No. 16S, Part I of II (June 1 Supplement), 2005: 9692.


Nagourney RA, Block KI, Spall D, Flam M, Rosenbaum E, Lee D, Berdeaux D, Sommers B, Harper S, Evans S. Ex Vivo Assay (EVA®) Directed Cancer Chemotherapy: Feasibility and Utility in Clinical Practice. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 20: 2001 (abstr 2162)


Nagourney RA, Brewer CA, Radecki S, Kidder WA, Sommers BL, Evans SS, Minor DR, DiSaia PJ. Phase II trial of gemcitabine plus cisplatin repeating doublet therapy in previously treated, relapsed ovarian cancer patients. Gynecol Oncol. 2003 Jan;88(1):35-9.


7. Perez-Tomas R. Multidrug resistance: retrospect and prospects in anti-cancer drug treatment. Curr Med Chem. 2006;13(16):1859-76.


Belpomme D, Gauthier S, Pujade-Lauraine E, Facchini T, Goudier MJ, Krakowski I, Netter-Pinon G, Frenay M, Gousset C, Marie FN, Benmiloud M, Sturtz F.  Verapamil increases the survival of patients with anthracycline-resistant metastatic breast carcinoma. Ann Oncol. 2000 Nov;11(11):1471-6.


8. McCulloch M, See C, Shu XJ, Broffman M, Kramer A, Fan WY, Gao J, Lieb W, Shieh K, Colford JM Jr. Astragalus-based Chinese herbs and platinum-based chemotherapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: meta-analysis of randomized trials. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Jan 20;24(3):419-30.


9. Goel S, Agarwal SB, Mandal AK, Singhal K, Agarwal T.  Emerging role of ascorbic acid in the management of advanced breast carcinoma as a chemosensitizer  Asian J Surg 1999; 22:333-6.


10. Bougnoux P, Germain E, Chajes V, Hubert B, Lhuillery C, Le Floch O, Body G, Calais G.  Cytotoxic drugs efficacy correlates with adipose tissue docosahexaenoic acid level in locally advanced breast carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 1999 Apr;79(11-12):1765-9.


Biondo PD, Brindley DN, Sawyer MB, Field CJ. The potential for treatment with dietary long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids during chemotherapy. J Nutr Biochem. 2008 Jul 3. [Epub ahead of print]


Fracasso PM, Picus J, Wildi JD, Goodner SA, Creekmore AN, Gao F, Govindan R, Ellis MJ, Tan BR, Linette GP, Fu CJ, Pentikis HS, Zumbrun SC, Egorin MJ, Bellet RE. Phase 1 and pharmacokinetic study of weekly docosahexaenoic acid-paclitaxel,  axoprexin((R)), in resistant solid tumor malignancies. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2008 Apr 15. [Epub ahead of print]


Horia E, Watkins BA.  Complementary actions of docosahexaenoic acid and genistein on COX-2, PGE2 and invasiveness in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Carcinogenesis. 2007 Apr;28(4):809-15.


Lindskog M, Gleissman H, Ponthan F, Castro J, Kogner P, Johnsen JI. Neuroblastoma cell death in response to docosahexaenoic acid: sensitization to chemotherapy and arsenic-induced oxidative stress. Int J Cancer. 2006 May 15;118(10):2584-93.


Liu QY, Tan BK. Effects of cis-unsaturated fatty acids on doxorubicin sensitivity in P388/DOX resistant and P388 parental cell lines. Life Sci. 2000;67(10):1207-18.


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Montagut C, Tusquets I, Ferrer B, Corominas JM, Bellosillo B, Campas C, Suarez M, Fabregat X, Campo E, Gascon P, Serrano S, Fernandez PL, Rovira A, Albanell J. Activation of nuclear factor-kappa B is linked to resistance to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2006 Jun;13(2):607-16.


Denys A, Hichami A, Khan NA.  n-3 PUFAs modulate T-cell activation via protein kinase C-alpha and -epsilon and the NF-kappaB signaling pathway. J Lipid Res. 2005 Apr;46(4):752-8.

McCarty MF, Block KI. Preadministration of high-dose salicylates, suppressors of NF-kappaB activation, may increase the chemosensitivity of many cancers: an example of proapoptotic signal modulation therapy. Integr Cancer Ther. 2006 Sep;5(3):252-68.

11. Sugiyama T, Sadzuka Y. Theanine and glutamate transporter inhibitors enhance the antitumor efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003 Dec 5;1653(2):47-59.

Rogers PJ, Smith JE, Heatherley SV, Pleydell-Pearce CW. Time for tea: mood, blood pressure and cognitive performance effects of caffeine and theanine administered alone and together. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007 Sep 23; [Epub ahead of print]

12. Menendez JA, Ropero S, Lupu R, Colomer R. Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid gamma-linolenic acid (18:3n-6) enhances docetaxel (Taxotere) cytotoxicity in human breast carcinoma cells: Relationship to lipid peroxidation and HER-2/neu expression. Oncol Rep. 2004 Jun;11(6):1241-52.

13. Dhanalakshmi S, Agarwal P, Glode LM, Agarwal R.  Silibinin sensitizes human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells to cisplatin- and carboplatin-induced growth inhibition and apoptotic death. Int J Cancer. 2003 Sep 20;106(5):699-705.


Scambia G, De Vincenzo R, Ranelletti FO et al.  Antiproliferative effect of silybin or gynaecological malignancies :  synergism with cisplatin and doxorubicin.  Eur J Cancer Part A.  1996; 32:877-882.


Zhou L, Liu P, Chen B, Wang Y, Wang X, Internati MC, Wachtel MS, Frezza EE.

Silibinin restores paclitaxel sensitivity to paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian carcinoma cells. Anticancer Res. 2008 Mar-Apr;28(2A):1119-27.


14. Sliutz G, Karlseder J, Tempfer C, Orel L, Holzer G, Simon MM. Drug resistance against gemcitabine and topotecan mediated by constitutive hsp70 overexpression in vitro: implication of quercetin as sensitiser in chemotherapy. Br J Cancer. 1996 Jul;74(2):172-7.


Scambia G, Ranelletti FO, Panici PB, De Vincenzo R, Bonanno G, Ferrandina G, Piantelli M, Bussa S, Rumi C, Cianfriglia M, et al. Quercetin potentiates the effect of adriamycin in a multidrug-resistant MCF-7 human breast-cancer cell line: P-glycoprotein as a possible target. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1994;34(6):459-64.


Shen J, Zhang W, Wu J, Zhu Y. The synergistic reversal effect of multidrug resistance by quercetin and hyperthermia in doxorubicin-resistant human myelogenous leukemia cells.

Int J Hyperthermia. 2008 Mar;24(2):151-9.


Asaum J, Matsuzaki H, Kawasak S, Kuroda M, Takeda Y, Kishi K, Hiraki Y. Effects of quercetin on the cell growth and the intracellular accumulation and retention of adriamycin. Anticancer Res. 2000 Jul-Aug;20(4):2477-83.


Supplemental references on use of melatonin with chemotherapy


Mills E, Wu P, Seely D, Guyatt G. Melatonin in the treatment of cancer: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis. J Pineal Res. 2005 Nov;39(4):360-6.


Block KI, Koch AC, Mead MN, Tothy PK, Newman RA, Gyllenhaal C. Impact of antioxidant supplementation on chemotherapeutic efficacy: a systematic review of the evidence from randomized controlled trials. Cancer Treat Rev. 2007 Aug;33(5):407-18.


Lissoni P, Chilelli M, Villa S, Cerizza L, Tancini G. Five years survival in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy and melatonin: a randomized trial. J Pineal Res. 2003 Aug;35(1):12-5.


Cerea G, Vaghi M, Ardizzoia A, Villa S, Bucovec R, Mengo S, Gardani G, Tancini G, Lissoni P. Biomodulation of cancer chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer: a randomized study of weekly low-dose irinotecan alone versus irinotecan plus the oncostatic pineal hormone melatonin in metastatic colorectal cancer patients progressing on 5-fluorouracil-containing combinations. Anticancer Res. 2003 Mar-Apr;23(2C):1951-4.


Lissoni P, Malugani F, Malysheva O, Kozlov V, Laudon M, Conti A, Maestroni G.

Neuroimmunotherapy of untreatable metastatic solid tumors with subcutaneous low-dose interleukin-2, melatonin and naltrexone: modulation of interleukin-2-induced antitumor immunity by blocking the opioid system. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2002 Aug;23(4):341-4.


Lissoni P, Vaghi M, Ardizzoia A, Malugani F, Fumagalli E, Bordin V, Fumagalli L, Bordoni A, Mengo S, Gardani GS, Tancini G. A phase II study of chemoneuroimmunotherapy with platinum, subcutaneous low-dose interleukin-2 and the pineal neurohormone melatonin (P.I.M.) as a second-line therapy in metastatic melanoma patients progressing on dacarbazine plus interferon-alpha. In Vivo. 2002 Mar-Apr;16(2):93-6.


Lissoni P, Barni S, Mandalà M, Ardizzoia A, Paolorossi F, Vaghi M, Longarini R, Malugani F, Tancini G. Decreased toxicity and increased efficacy of cancer chemotherapy using the pineal hormone melatonin in metastatic solid tumour patients with poor clinical status. Eur J Cancer. 1999 Nov;35(12):1688-92.