Chapter 17



1. Lee AY. Epidemiology and management of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer. Thromb Res. 2003 Jun 1;110(4):167-72.


Lee AY, Levine MN, Baker RI, Bowden C, Kakkar AK, Prins M, Rickles FR, Julian JA, Haley S, Kovacs MJ, Gent M Low-molecular-weight heparin versus a coumarin for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jul 10;349(2):146-53.


2. Korte W.  Changes of the coagulation and fibrinolysis system in malignancy: their possible impact on future diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.  Clinical Chemistry & Laboratory Medicine. 2000; 38(8):679-92.


Honn KV, Tang DG, Chen YQ. Platelets and cancer metastasis: more than an epiphenomenon.  Seminars in Thrombosis & Hemostasis. 1992;18(4):392-415.

Glassman AB.  Hemostatic abnormalities associated with cancer and its therapy.  Annals of Clinical & Laboratory Science. 1997; 27(6):391-5.


3. Bom JB, Verheul HM, Hoekman K, Pinedo HM. Coagulation disorders in cancer patients: possible opportunity for therapy.  Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde. 2000; 144(6):258-63.


Nieswandt B, Hafner M, Echtenacher B.  Mannel DN. Lysis of tumor cells by natural killer cells in mice is impeded by platelets. Cancer Research. 1999;59(6):1295-300.


4. Trikha M, Nakada MT.  2002.  Platelets and cancer:  implications for antiangiogenic therapy.  Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis 2002; 28(1):39-43.


Nash GF, Turner LF, Scully MF, Kakkar AK. Platelets and cancer. Lancet Oncology. 2002; 3(7):425-30.


5. Trikha M, Nakada MT.  Platelets and cancer:  implications for antiangiogenic therapy.  Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis 2002; 28(1):39-43.


Nash GF, Turner LF, Scully MF  Kakkar AK. Platelets and cancer. Lancet Oncology. 2002; 3(7):425-30.


6. Beer JH, Haeberli A, Vogt A, Woodtli K, Henkel E, Furrer T, Fey MF.  Coagulation markers predict survival in cancer patients. Thromb Haemost. 2002 Nov;88(5):745-9.


7. von Tempelhoff GF, Schonmann N, Heilmann L, Pollow K, Hommel G.  Prognostic role of plasmaviscosity in breast cancer. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2002;26(1):55-61.


8. Zacharski LR, Meehan KR, Algarra SM, Calvo FA.  Clinical trials with anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapies. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 1992; 11(3-4):421-31


9. Meehan KR, Zacharski LR, Moritz TE, Rickles FR.  Pretreatment fibrinogen levels are associated with response to chemotherapy in patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung: Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study 188. Am J Hematol. 1995; 49(2):143-8.


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Nagayama M, Tachibana A, Hayakawa H, Sato A. [Significance of factors of coagulation and fibrinolysis in progression of lung cancer]Nihon Kyobu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi. 1993 Feb;31(2):180-5.


10. Hiller E, Riess H, Hafter R, Graeff H. Evaluation of hypercoagulability after remission induction chemotherapy of acute leukemia.Blut. 1980 Nov;41(5):359-66. 


Mirshahi SS, Pujade-Lauraine E, Soria C, Mirshahi M, Fretault J, Bernadou A, Soria J. D-dimer and CA 125 levels in patients with ovarian cancer during antineoplastic therapy. Prognostic significance for the success of anti-cancer treatment.Cancer. 1992 May 1;69(9):2289-92.


Guida M, Ravaioli A, Sileni VC, Romanini A, Labianca R, Freschi A, Brugnara S, Casamassima A, Lorusso V, Nanni O, Ridolfi R, . Fibrinogen: a novel predictor of responsiveness in metastatic melanoma patients treated with bio-chemotherapy: IMI (italian melanoma inter-group) trial.J Transl Med. 2003 Dec 22;1(1):13. 


11. Hoyle CF, Swirsky DM, Freedman L, Hayhoe FG. Beneficial effect of heparin in the management of patients with APL.Br J Haematol. 1988 Mar;68(3):283-9. 


Lebeau B, Chastang C, Brechot JM, Capron F, Dautzenberg B, Delaisements C, Mornet M, Brun J, Hurdebourcq JP, Lemarie E. Subcutaneous heparin treatment increases survival in small cell lung cancer. "Petites Cellules" Group.  Cancer. 1994 Jul 1;74(1):38-45.


12. Joung S, Robinson R.  Venous thromboembolism in cancer patients in Christchurch, 1996-1999.  NZ Med J 2002; 115(1155):257-60.


13. Norred CL, Finlayson CA.  Hemorrhage after the preoperative use of complementary and alternative medicines.  AANAJ.  2000; 68: 217-220.


14. Yuan CS, Wei G, Dey L, Karrison T, Nahlik L, Maleckar S, Kasza K, Ang-Lee M, Moss J. Brief communication: American ginseng reduces warfarin's effect in healthy patients: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 2004 Jul 6;141(1):23-7.


15. Messina BA. Herbal supplements: Facts and myths--talking to your patients about herbal supplements.

J Perianesth Nurs. 2006 Aug;21(4):268-78;


16. Dotevall A, Kutti J, Teger-Nilsson AC, Wadenvik H, Wilhelmsen L. Platelet reactivity, fibrinogen and smoking. European Journal of Haematology. 1987; 38(1):55-9.


Kimura S, Nishinaga M  Ozawa T, Shimada K. Thrombin generation as an acute effect of cigarette smoking. American Heart Journal. 1994;128(1):7-11.


Hutchison S.  Smoking as a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction. Canadian Journal of Cardiology. 1998; 14 Suppl D:20D-22D.


Roald HE, Orvim U  Bakken IJ, Barstad RM  Kierulf P. Sakariassen KS. Modulation of thrombotic responses in moderately stenosed arteries by cigarette smoking and aspirin ingestion. Arteriosclerosis & Thrombosis. 1994; 14(4):617-21.


Dotevall A, Kutti J, Teger-Nilsson AC  Wadenvik H. Wilhelmsen L. Platelet reactivity, fibrinogen and smoking. European Journal of Haematology.  1987; 38(1):55-9.


17. Ernst E, Matrai A, Siepmann P, Schmid A.  Blood rheology of former and active athletes.  J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1987;  27:373-375


Ernst E.  Influence of regular physical activity on blood rheology.  Eur Heart J 1987;  8 Suppl G:59-62


Neuhaus D, Gaehtgens P.  Haemorrheology and long term exercise.  Sports Med 1994;  18:10-21


Koenig W, Sund M, Doring A, Ernst E.  Leisure-time physical activity but not work-related physical activity is associated with decreased plasma viscosity. Results from a large population sample [see comments].  Circulation 1997;  95:335-341


Brun JF, Khaled S, Raynaud E, Bouix D, Micallef JP, Orsetti A.  The triphasic effects of exercise on blood rheology: which relevance to physiology and pathophysiology?  Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 1998;  19:89-104


19. Trujillo-Santos AJ, Jiménez-Puente A, Perea-Milla E. Association between long travel and venous thromboembolic disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies. Ann Hematol. 2008 Feb;87(2):79-86.


Marckmann P, Sandstrom B  Jespersen J. Dietary effects on circadian fluctuation in human blood coagulation factor VII and fibrinolysis. Atherosclerosis. 1993; 101(2):225-34/


Miller GJ. Dietary fatty acids and blood coagulation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1997 Oct;57(4-5):389-94.


Hornstra G.  Influence of dietary fat type on arterial thrombosis tendency. Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging. 2001; 5(3):160-6.


Sanigorski AJ. O'Dea K. Sinclair AJ. n-3 fatty acids reduce in vitro thromboxane production while having little effect on in vitro prostacyclin production in the rat. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes & Essential Fatty Acids.  1994; 50(5):223-8.


Anderson JW.  Dietary fibre, complex carbohydrate and coronary artery disease. Canadian Journal of Cardiology.  1995;11 Suppl G:55G-62G.


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20. Chan KC, Lou PP, Hargrove JL. High casein-lactalbumin diet accelerates blood coagulation in rats. Journal of Nutrition. 1993; 123(6):1010-6.


Mezzano D, Munoz X, Martinez C, Cuevas A, Panes O, Aranda E, Guasch V. Strobel P, Munoz B, Rodriguez S, Pereira J, Leighton F. Vegetarians and cardiovascular risk factors: hemostasis, inflammatory markers and plasma homocysteine. Thrombosis & Haemostasis. 1999; 81(6):913-7.


Lahoz C, Alonso R, Ordovas JM, Lopez-Farre A, de Oya M, Mata P.  Effects of dietary fat saturatiohn on eicosanoid production, platelet aggregation and blood pressure.  Eur J Clin Invest 1997; 27(9):780-7.


Fisher M, Levine PH, Weiner B, Ockene IS, Johnson B, Johnson MH, Natale AM, Vaudreuil CH, Hoogasian J.  The effect of vegetarian diets on plasma lipid and platelet levels. Arch Intern Med 1986; 146:1193-7.


Mezzano D, Munoz X, Martinez C, Cuevas A, Panes O, Aranda E, Guasch V, Stsroberl Pl Munoz B, Rodrigues S, Pereira J, Leighton F.  Vegetarians and cardiovascular risk factors:  hemostasis, inflammatory markers and plasma homocysteine.  Thromb Haemost 1999; 81:913-7.


21. Fleming, RM.  The effect of high-protein diets on coronary blood flow.  Angiology 2000; 51(10):817-26.


22. Li D, Sinclair A, Mann N, Turner A, Ball M, Kelly F, Abedin L, Wilson A.  The association of diet an d thrombotic risk factors in healthy male vegetarians and meat-eaters.  Eur J Clin Nutr 1999; 53(8):612-9.


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Coppola A, Davi G, De Stefano V, Mancini FP, Cerbone AM  Di Minno G. Homocysteine, coagulation, platelet function, and thrombosis. Seminars in Thrombosis & Hemostasis. 2000; 26(3):243-54.


Miller AL, Kelly GS. Homocysteine metabolism: nutritional modulation and impact on health and disease.  Alternative Medicine Reviews 1997;2(4):234-254


Selhub J.  Homocysteine metabolism.  Annual Review of Nutrition. 1999; 19:217-46.


23. Lahoz C,  Alonso R,  Ordovas JM,  Lopez-Farre A,  de Oya M, Mata P. Effects of dietary fat saturation on eicosanoid production, platelet aggregation and blood pressure. European Journal of Clinical Investigation. 1997;27(9):780-7


Vaisanen S, Rankinen T, Pentilla I, Rauramaa R. Factor VII coagulant activity in relation to serum lipoproteins and dietary fat in middle-aged men.  Thromb Haemost 1997; 73:435-8


Chrysohoou C, Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Das UN, Stefanadis C.  Adherence to the Mediterranean diet attenuates inflammation and coagulation process in healthy adults: The ATTICA Study.  J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004 Jul 7;44(1):152-8.


Fleming, RM.  The effect of high-, moderate-, and low-fat diets on weight loss and cardiovascular disease risk factors.  Prev Cardiol 2002; 5(3):110-8.


Miller GJ. Dietary fatty acids and blood coagulation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1997 Oct;57(4-5):389-94.


24. Polagruto, JA, Schramm DD, Wang-Polagruto JF.  Journal of medicinal food. J Med Food 6 (4) 2003, 301–308


Anderson JW.  Dietary fibre, complex carbohydrate and coronary artery disease. Canadian Journal of Cardiology. 1995; 11 Suppl G:55G-62G.


Veldman FJ, Nair CH, Vorster HH, Vermaak WJ, Jerling JC, Oosthuizen W, Venter CS. Dietary pectin influences fibrin network structure in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Thrombosis Research.1997; 86(3):183-96.


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Hoult JRS, Paya M.  Pharmcological and biochemical actions of simple coumarins: natural products with therapeutic potential.  General Pharmacology. 1996; 27: 713-722.


Lazarus SA, Garg ML.  Tomato extract inhibits human platelet aggregation in vitro without increasing basal cAMP levels. Volume 55, Number 3 / May 2004. p249 - 256


25. Simopoulos AP,  Robinson J.  The Omega Plan.  HarperCollins, 1998.  p. 29


Simopoulos AP. Evolutionary aspects of omega-3 fatty acids in the food supply. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes & Essential Fatty Acids. 1999; 60(5-6):421-9.


Mori TA, Beilin LJ, Burke V. Interactions between dietary fat, fish, and fish oils and their effects on platelet function in men at risk of cardiovascular disease. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 1997, 17(2), p279-286.


26. Flaten, H, et al. Fish-oil concentrate: effects of variables related to cardiovascular disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Vol. 52, 1990, p300-306


27. Steiner M. Vitamin E, a modifier of platelet function: rationale and use in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Nutrition Reviews. 1999;57(10):306-9


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Wilkinson IB., Megson IL,  MacCallum H,  Sogo N, Cockcroft JRB, Webb DJ. Oral vitamin C reduces arterial stiffness and platelet aggregation in humans. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. 1999;34(5):690-3


Yang M, Collis CS, Kelly M, Diplock AT, Rice-Evans C. Do iron and vitamin C co-supplementation influence platelet function or LDL oxidizability in healthy volunteers?. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1999;53(5):367-74


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28. Appeldoorn CC, Bonnefoy A, Lutters BC, Daenens K, van Berkel TJ, Hoylaerts MF, Biessen EA. Gallic acid antagonizes P-selectin-mediated platelet-leukocyte interactions: implications for the French paradox. Circulation. 2005 Jan 4;111(1):106-12.


29. de Lange DW, Scholman WL, Kraaijenhagen RJ, Akkerman JW, van de Wiel A. Alcohol and polyphenolic grape extract inhibit platelet adhesion in flowing blood. Eur J Clin Invest. 2004 Dec;34(12):818-24.


De Lange DW, Van Golden PH, Scholman WL, Kraaijenhagen RJ, Akkerman JW, Van De Wiel A. Red wine and red wine polyphenolic compounds but not alcohol inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Eur J Intern Med. 2003 Oct;14(6):361-366.


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30. Stampfuss JJ, Schror K, Weber . Green tea catechins containing a galloyl group in the 3' position inhibit tissue factor-induced thrombin generation. Thromb Haemost. 2005 Jun;93(6):1200-1.


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31. Kudolo GB, Wang W, Barrientos J, Elrod R, Blodgett J. The ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) inhibits arachidonic acid-mediated platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 production in healthy volunteers. J Herb Pharmacother. 2004;4(4):13-26.


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32. Koo KL, Ammit AJ, Tran VH, Duke CC, Roufogalis BD. Gingerols and related analogues inhibit arachidonic acid-induced human platelet serotonin release and aggregation. Thromb Res. 2001 Sep 1;103(5):387-97.


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33. Allison GL, Lowe GM, Rahman K. Aged garlic extract and its constituents inhibit platelet aggregation through multiple mechanisms. J Nutr. 2006 Mar;136(3 Suppl):782S-788S.


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45. Backon J. Ginger: inhibition of thromboxane synthetase and stimulation of prostacyclin: relevance for medicine and psychiatry. Med Hypotheses. 1986 Jul;20(3):271-8.


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48. Mazzaferri EL Jr, Young JJ. Abciximab: a review and update for clinicians. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2008 Jun;6(5):609-18.


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49. Zacharski LR.  Small cell carcinoma of the lung: interaction with the blood coagulation mechanism and treatment with anticoagulants. Onkologie. 1987; 10(4):264-70.


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50. Robert F, Busby E, Marques MB, Reynolds RE, Carey DE.  Phase II study of docetaxel plus enoxaparin in chemotherapy-naive patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer: preliminary results. Lung Cancer. 2003 Nov;42(2):237-45.s


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51. Deitcher SR.  Cancer and thrombosis: mechanisms and treatment. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2003;16(1-2):2