Chapter 6



1. Rubery BA. Hypoalbuminemia. Available at :  Accessed May 31, 2008.


2. Selberg O, Sel S.  The adjunctive value of routine biochemistry in nutritional assessment of hospitalized patients. Clin Nutr. 2001; 20(6):477-85


3. Campbell KL, Lane K, Martin AD, Gelmon KA, McKenzie DC. Resting energy expenditure and body mass changes in women during adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Cancer Nurs. 2007 Mar-Apr;30(2):95-100.


Harvie MN, Campbell IT, Baildam A, Howell A. Energy balance in early breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2004 Feb;83(3):201-10.


4. Demark-Wahnefried W, Hars V, Conaway MR, Havlin K, Rimer BK, McElveen G, Winer EP. Reduced rates of metabolism and decreased physical activity in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Am J Clin Nutr 1997 May;65(5):1495-501


5. Villa ML. Ferrario E. Bergamasco E. Bozzetti F. Cozzaglio L. Clerici E.  Reduced natural killer cell activity and IL-2 production in malnourished cancer patients.  British Journal of Cancer. 63(6):1010-4, 1991


Villa ML. Ferrario E. Bergamasco E. Bozzetti F. Cozzaglio L. Clerici E.  Reduced natural killer cell activity and IL-2 production in malnourished cancer patients.  British Journal of Cancer. 63(6):1010-4, 1991


6. DeWys W.  Management of cancer cachexia.  Seminars in Oncology  1985; 12: 452


Imoberdorf R.  Immuno-nutrition: designer diets in cancer. Support Care Cancer. 1997;5(5):381-6


7. Smale, BF et al.  The efficacy of nutritional assessment and support in cancer surgery.  Cancer 1981; 47: 2375


Nixon DW.  Heymsfield SB.  Cohen AE. et al.  Protein-calorie undernutrition in hospitalized cancer patients.  Am J Med 1980; 68: 683-90


Torosian, MH, Daly, JM.  Nutritional support in the cancer-bearing host.  Cancer 1986; 58: 1915-1929


Copeland EM. Daly JM. Dudrick SJ.  Nutrition as an adjunct to cancer treatment in the adult.  Cancer Research 1977; 37: 2451-2456


Mullen JL. Gertner MH. Buzby GP. et al.  Implications of malnutrition in the surgical patient.  Archives of Surgery 1979; 114: 121-125


8. Tchekmedyian NS, Zahyna D, Halpert C, et al. Clinical aspects of nutrition in advanced cancer. Oncology 1992;49(suppl 2):3-7


Blackburn GL. Total Parenteral Nutrition.  (Associate Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School.)  Adjuvant Nutrition in Cancer Treatment Symposium.  CTCA/American College of Nutrition.  Tampa, Florida.  September 19, 1995


9. Argiles JM. Cancer-associated malnutrition. Eur J Oncol Nurs. 2005;9 Suppl 2:S39-50.


10. Wallace J. Nutritional and botanical modulation of the inflammatory cascade--eicosanoids, cyclooxygenases, and lipoxygenases--as an adjunct in cancer therapy.

Integr Cancer Ther. 2002 Mar;1(1):7-37


11. Mantovani G, Maccio A, Madeddu C, Gramignano G, Lusso MR, Serpe R, Massa E, Astara G, Deiana L. A Phase II Study with Antioxidants, Both in the Diet and Supplemented, Pharmaconutritional Support, Progestagen, and Anti-Cyclooxygenase-2 Showing Efficacy and Safety in Patients with Cancer-Related Anorexia/Cachexia and Oxidative Stress. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 May;15(5):1030-4.


12. Maskarinec G, Hebshi S, Custer L, Franke AA. The relation of soy intake and isoflavone levels in nipple aspirate fluid. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2008 Feb;17(1):67-70.


Song WO, Chun OK, Hwang I, Shin HS, Kim BG, Kim KS, Lee SY, Shin D, Lee SG. Soy isoflavones as safe functional ingredients. J Med Food. 2007 Dec;10(4):571-80.


Duffy C, Perez K, Partridge A. Implications of phytoestrogen intake for breast cancer.

CA Cancer J Clin. 2007 Sep-Oct;57(5):260-77.


Messina M, McCaskill-Stevens W, Lampe JW. Addressing the soy and breast cancer relationship: review, commentary, and workshop proceedings. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006 Sep 20;98(18):1275-84.


Block KI, Constantinou A, Hilakivi-Clarke L, Hughes C, Tripathy D, Tice JA.

Point-counterpoint: soy intake for breast cancer patients.  Integr Cancer Ther. 2002 Mar;1(1):90-100.


13. Calabrese C, Myer S, Munson S, Turet P, Birdsall TC. A cross-over study of the effect of a single oral feeding of medium chain triglyceride oil vs. canola oil on post-ingestion plasma triglyceride levels in healthy men. Altern Med Rev. 1999 Feb;4(1):23-8.


14. Seely D, Singh R. Adaptogenic potential of a polyherbal natural health product: report on a longitudinal clinical trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2007 Sep;4(3):375-80.


Rege NN, Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA. Adaptogenic properties of six rasayana herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine. Phytother Res. 1999 Jun;13(4):275-91.


Hamza A, Amin A, Daoud S. The protective effect of a purified extract of Withania somnifera against doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity in rats. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2008 Jan;24(1):63-73.


Kormosh N, Laktionov K, Antoshechkina M. Effect of a combination of extract from several plants on cell-mediated and humoral immunity of patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Phytother Res. 2006 May;20(5):424-5.


15.  Hershman D, McBride R, Jacobson JS, Lamerato L, Roberts K, Grann VR, Neugut AI. Racial disparities in treatment and survival among women with early-stage breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Sep 20;23(27):6639-46.


16. Finley JP. Management of cancer cachexia.  AACN Clinical Issues. 2000; 11(4):590-603


17. Dalton WS. The tumor microenvironment as a determinant of drug response and resistance. Drug Resist Updat. 1999; 2(5):285-288


18. Lindskog M, Gleissman H, Ponthan F, Castro J, Kogner P, Johnsen JI. Neuroblastoma cell death in response to docosahexaenoic acid: sensitization to chemotherapy and arsenic-induced oxidative stress. Int J Cancer. 2006 May 15;118(10):2584-93.


Maheo K, Vibet S, Steghens JP, Dartigeas C, Lehman M, Bougnoux P, Gore J. Differential sensitization of cancer cells to doxorubicin by DHA: a role for lipoperoxidation. Free Radic Biol Med. 2005 Sep 15;39(6):742-51.


Jordan A, Stein J. Effect of an omega-3 fatty acid containing lipid emulsion alone and in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on growth of the colon cancer cell line Caco-2. Eur J Nutr. 2003 Dec;42(6):324-31.


Ogilvie GK, Fettman MJ, Mallinckrodt CH, Walton JA, Hansen RA, Davenport DJ, Gross KL, Richardson KL, Rogers Q, Hand MS. Effect of fish oil, arginine, and doxorubicin chemotherapy on remission and survival time for dogs with lymphoma: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study. Cancer. 2000 Apr 15;88(8):1916-28.


Bougnoux P, Germain E, Chajes V, Hubert B, Lhuillery C, Le Floch O, Body G, Calais G. Cytotoxic drugs efficacy correlates with adipose tissue docosahexaenoic acid level in locally advanced breast carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 1999 Apr;79(11-12):1765-9.


19. Brookes GB.  Nutritional status--a prognostic indicator in head and neck cancer.  Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery. 93(1):69-74, 1985


Edler L. Heim ME. Quintero C. Brummer T. Queisser W.  Prognostic factors of advanced colorectal cancer patients.  European Journal of Cancer & Clinical Oncology. 22(10):1231-7, 1986


Pedersen LM. Sorensen PG. Increased urinary albumin excretion rate in breast cancer patients.  Acta Oncologica. 39(2):145-9, 2000


Parker D. Bradley C. Bogle SM. Lay J. Masood M. Hancock AK. Naylor B. Price JJ. Serum albumin and CA125 are powerful predictors of survival in epithelial ovarian cancer.  British Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 101(10):888-93, 1994


Heys SD. Walker LG. Deehan DJ. Eremin OE. Serum albumin: a prognostic indicator in patients with colorectal cancer.  Journal of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh. 43(3):163-8, 1998


Soreide JA. Lea OA. Kvinnsland S.  Cytosol albumin content in operable breast cancer. Correlations to steroid hormone receptors, other prognostic factors and prognosis. Acta Oncologica. 30(7):797-802, 1991


Maestu I. Pastor M. Gomez-Codina J. Aparicio J. Oltra A. Herranz C. Montalar J. Munarriz B. Reynes G.  Pretreatment prognostic factors for survival in small-cell lung cancer: a new prognostic index and validation of three known prognostic indices on 341 patients.  Annals of Oncology. 8(6):547-53, 1997


Santoso JT. Canada T. Latson B. Aaaadi K. Lucci JA 3rd. Coleman RL.  Prognostic nutritional index in relation to hospital stay in women with gynecologic cancer. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 95(6 Pt 1):844-6, 2000


Mick R. Vokes EE. Weichselbaum RR. Panje WR.  Prognostic factors in advanced head and neck cancer patients undergoing multimodality therapy.  Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery. 105(1):62-73, 1991


Cohen MH. Makuch R. Johnston-Early A. Ihde DC. Bunn PA Jr. Fossieck BE Jr. Minna JD.  Laboratory parameters as an alternative to performance status in prognostic stratification of patients with small cell lung cancer.  Cancer Treatment Reports. 65(3-4):187-95, 1981


20. Demark-Wahnefried W, Hars V, Conaway MR, Havlin K, Rimer BK, McElveen G, Winer EP. Reduced rates of metabolism and decreased physical activity in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Am J Clin Nutr 1997 May;65(5):1495-501


21. Manusirivithaya S, Sripramote M, Tangjitgamol S, Sheanakul C, Leelahakorn S, Thavaramara T, Tangcharoenpanich K. Antiemetic effect of ginger in gynecologic oncology patients receiving cisplatin. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2004 Nov-Dec;14(6):1063-9.


22. Tate S. Peppermint oil: a treatment for postoperative nausea. J Adv Nurs. 1997 Sep;26(3):543-9.


23.  Fessele KS. Managing the multiple causes of nausea and vomiting in the patient with cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum. 1996 Oct;23(9):1409-15


24. Cohen AJ, Menter A, Hale L. Acupuncture: role in comprehensive cancer care--a primer for the oncologist and review of the literature. Integr Cancer Ther. 2005 Jun;4(2):131-43.


25. Beck SL, Cella D. Etiology and impact of oral mucositis.  Presented at the Annual Congress of the Oncology Nursing Society, April 30, 2004, Anaheim CA.


26. Choi K, Lee SS, Oh SJ, Lim SY, Lim SY, Jeon WK, Oh TY, Kim JW. The effect of oral glutamine on 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin-induced mucositis/stomatitis assessed by intestinal permeability test. Clin Nutr. 2007 Feb;26(1):57-62.


Aquino VM, Harvey AR, Garvin JH, Godder KT, Nieder ML, Adams RH, Jackson GB, Sandler ES. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study of oral glutamine in the prevention of mucositis in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a pediatric blood and marrow transplant consortium study. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2005 Oct;36(7):611-6.


Savarese DM, Savy G, Vahdat L, Wischmeyer PE, Corey B. Prevention of chemotherapy and radiation toxicity with glutamine. Cancer Treat Rev. 2003 Dec;29(6):501-13.


Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer. 1998 Oct 1;83(7):1433-9.


27. Higdon JV, Delage B, Williams DE, Dashwood RH. Cruciferous vegetables and human cancer risk: epidemiologic evidence and mechanistic basis. Pharmacol Res. 2007 Mar;55(3):224-36.


Clarke JD, Dashwood RH, Ho E. Multi-targeted prevention of cancer by sulforaphane.

Cancer Lett. 2008 May 24. [Epub ahead of print]


Dalessandri KM, Firestone GL, Fitch MD, Bradlow HL, Bjeldanes LF. Pilot study: effect of 3,3'-diindolylmethane supplements on urinary hormone metabolites in postmenopausal women with a history of early-stage breast cancer. Nutr Cancer. 2004;50(2):161-7.


28. Matos JM, Schmidt CM, Thomas HJ, Cummings OW, Wiebke EA, Madura JA, Patrick LJ Sr, Crowell PL. A pilot study of perillyl alcohol in pancreatic cancer. J Surg Res. 2008 Jun 15;147(2):194-9.


Hou DX, Fujii M, Terahara N, Yoshimoto M. Molecular Mechanisms Behind the Chemopreventive Effects of Anthocyanidins. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2004;2004(5):321-325.


29. Bhuvaneswari V, Nagini S. Lycopene: a review of its potential as an anticancer agent.

Curr Med Chem Anticancer Agents. 2005 Nov;5(6):627-35.


30. Ishikawa H, Saeki T, Otani T, Suzuki T, Shimozuma K, Nishino H, Fukuda S, Morimoto K. Aged garlic extract prevents a decline of NK cell number and activity in patients with advanced cancer. J Nutr. 2006 Mar;136(3 Suppl):816S-820S.


Ali M, Thomson M, Afzal M. Garlic and onions: their effect on eicosanoid metabolism and its clinical relevance. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2000 Feb;62(2):55-73.


Yeh YY, Liu L. Cholesterol-lowering effect of garlic extracts and organosulfur compounds: human and animal studies. J Nutr. 2001 Mar;131(3s):989S-93S.


31. Kimura S, Tamayama M, Minami M, Hata N, Saito H. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits blood viscosity in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 1998 Jun;100(3):351-61.


Vibet S, Goupille C, Bougnoux P, Steghens JP, Goré J, Mahéo K. Sensitization by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) of breast cancer cells to anthracyclines through loss of glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) response. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008 Apr 1;44(7):1483-91.


32. Menon VP, Sudheer AR. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin.

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;595:105-25.


33. Badger TM, Ronis MJ, Simmen RC, Simmen FA. Soy protein isolate and protection against cancer. J Am Coll Nutr. 2005 Apr;24(2):146S-149S.


34. Seely D, Mills EJ, Wu P, Verma S, Guyatt GH. The effects of green tea consumption on incidence of breast cancer and recurrence of breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Integr Cancer Ther. 2005 Jun;4(2):144-55


Bettuzzi S, Brausi M, Rizzi F, Castagnetti G, Peracchia G, Corti A. Chemoprevention of human prostate cancer by oral administration of green tea catechins in volunteers with high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia: a preliminary report from a one-year proof-of-principle study. Cancer Res. 2006 Jan 15;66(2):1234-40.


35. Bergman Jungeström M, Thompson LU, Dabrosin C. Flaxseed and its lignans inhibit estradiol-induced growth, angiogenesis, and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor in human breast cancer xenografts in vivo. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Feb 1;13(3):1061-7.


36. Ross HA, McDougall GJ, Stewart D. Antiproliferative activity is predominantly associated with ellagitannins in raspberry extracts. Phytochemistry. 2007 Jan;68(2):218-28.


37. Elattar TM, Virji AS. The effect of red wine and its components on growth and proliferation of human oral squamous carcinoma cells. Anticancer Res. 1999 Nov-Dec;19(6B):5407-14.


Aggarwal BB, Bhardwaj A, Aggarwal RS, Seeram NP, Shishodia S, Takada Y. Role of resveratrol in prevention and therapy of cancer: preclinical and clinical studies. Anticancer Res. 2004 Sep-Oct;24(5A):2783-840.


38. Block, KI.  Antioxidants:  SELECTed out?  Integr Cancer Ther. 2009; 8(1).  In press.